Package etomica.units

Defines units and dimensions that are used for conversions during input or output.

See: Description

• Interface Summary
Interface Description
Dimensioned
Interface for an object with an associated physical dimension.
Unit
Interface used to specify the physical units to be used when inputting or outputting a quantity.
• Class Summary
Class Description
Ampere
The ampere unit of electrical current.
Angle
Base for all angular units.
Angstrom
Area
Base for all area units.
Bar
The bar unit of pressure, equal to 10^5 N/m^2.
Barye
The barye unit of pressure, equal to 1 dyn/cm^2.
The Borh Radius unit of length, corresponding to the size of a Hydrogen atom's electron cloud.
Calorie
The Joule unit of energy, equal to 1 N-m or 1 kg-m^2/s^2.
Candela
The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.
Charge
The dimension for electrical charge.
CompoundDimension
CompoundUnit
Coulomb
The coulomb unit of electrical charge.
Count
Unit class for the number, or quantity, of something.
CubicCentimeter
The cubic centimeter unit of volume, cm^3.
CubicMeter
The cubic meter unit of volume, m^3.
Current
The dimension for electrical current.
Dalton
Debye
The debye unit of electrical dipole moment, equal to 10^-18 statC-cm, or 3.33564e-30 C-m.
Decimal
Decimal representation of something that represents the fractional amount of a whole (e.g., mole fraction) as a decimal value typically between 0 and 1.
Degree
Standard degree angular unit, such that for example a right angle is 90 degrees.
Dimension
Parent of all Dimension classes, which describe the physical dimensions (e.g., mass, length, force) of a quantity.
DimensionRatio
Class to form a dimension from ratio of two dimensions.
Dipole
Base unit for electrical dipole moment.
Dyne
The dyne unit of force, equal to 1 g-cm/s^2.
ElectricPotential
The dimension for electrostatic potential.
Electron
Unit of charge equal to the magnitude of the charge on an electron.
ElectronVolt
The electronvolt unit of energy, equal to approximately 1.602e-19 Joules.
Energy
Dimension for all energy units.
Erg
The erg unit of energy, equal to 1 dyn-cm or 1 g-cm^2/s^2.
Force
Base for all force units.
Fraction
Dimension for a quantity representing a fractional amount.
Gram
Hartree
Joule
The Joule unit of energy, equal to 1 N-m or 1 kg-m^2/s^2.
Kelvin
Length
Dimension for all units of length.
Lister
Liter
The liter unit of volume, equal to 1000 cm^3 or 0.001 m^3 or 10^27 A^3.
LuminousIntensity
The dimension for luminous intensity.
Mass
Dimension for all units of mass.
Meter
The meter unit of length, equal to 10^10 angstroms.
Mole
The mole unit of quantity, approximately equal to 6.022e23 simulation units.
Newton
The Newton unit of force, equal to 1 kg-m/s^2.
Null
Dimension specified dimensionless quantities which have no other interpretation (e.g., the quantity is not known to be an angle, or a fraction).
Pascal
The Pascal unit of pressure, equal to 1 N/m^2.
Percent
Decimal representation of something that represents the fractional amount of a whole (e.g., mole fraction) as a percentage value typically between 0 and 100.
Picosecond
Simulation unit of time.
Pixel
Unit converting between simulation unit of length and pixels rendered in an image.
Poise
The Poise unit of viscosity, equal to 1 gram/(cm-sec).
Prefix
Base class for all unit prefixes, such as kilo, micro, nano, etc.
PrefixedUnit
Implementation of the Unit interface formed from a base Unit (e.
Pressure
Dimension for (3D) pressure.
Pressure2D
Simulation unit of (2D) pressure is (D-A/ps^2)/A = D/ps^2
Quantity
The dimension for the quantity of discrete things (e.g.
Simulation unit for the measure of an angle.
Second
SimpleUnit
Superclass for all base unit classes.
Statcoulomb
The statcoulomb unit of electrical charge, which is the standard unit of charge in the CGS unit system.
Temperature
The temperature dimension.
Tester
Time
Dimension for all units of time.
Undefined
Undefined dimension used for quantities with undefined or unknown dimensions.
UnitFilter
UnitGraphics
UnitRatio
Class for constructing units forms as ratios of other units.
Viscosity
Dimension for all units of viscosity, Mass/(Length-Time)
Volt
The Volt unit of electric potential.
Volume
Dimension for all volume units.

Package etomica.units Description

Defines units and dimensions that are used for conversions during input or output. All quantities used internally by the simulation are given in "simulation units", which is based on the Angstrom as the unit of length, the Dalton as the unit of mass, and the picosecond as the unit of time (a Dalton, or atomic mass unit (amu), is one gram divided by Avogadro's number). The classes given in this package can be used to convert between these units and another unit that might be more natural or convenient. The two key elements of the package are the Unit interface and the abstract Dimension class.

Dimension

Instances of Dimension can be used to indicate the physical nature of a value, e.g., whether it is a quantity of mass, length, force, etc. There are two places where this information is routinely provided:
• the package `etomica.data` defines a Data class which holds a DataInfo instance describing the Data; part of the information given in DataInfo is a Dimension instance which specifies the physical dimensions of the data.
• the convention of defining set/get methods to access and change fields of an object is extended to include a method that provides a Dimension instance appropriate to the field. For example, a class that defines setSize and getSize methods to access the field size (which represents, say, the diameter of a sphere) will also have a method named getSizeDimension which returns an instance of Dimension indicating dimensions of length.
Dimensions are specified via a signature, which is an array of seven values indicating the exponents of the fundamental dimensions that are combined to form the specified dimension. The fundamental dimensions follow the convention defined by the SI system, and are
• length
• mass
• time
• electric current
• temperature
• number (of molecules)
• luminous intensity
So, for example, the signature of the energy dimension is length2-mass/time2 and is given by the signature array (2, 1, -2, 0, 0, 0, 0). The signature of energy/molecules (e.g., Joules/mole) is (2, 1, -2, 0, 0, -1, 0).

Dimension subclasses are defined for the fundamental dimensions and commonly encountered derived dimensions. These classes have names such as Length, Time, Volume, Energy, and so on. These classes all define static singleton instances with the field name DIMENSION; the field SIM_UNIT in each class gives an instance of Unit that corresponds to the unit derived from simulation units for that dimension. Other dimensions can be defined by constructing instances of CompoundDimension.

Unit

Implementations of the Unit interface provide a convenient means to convert between simulation units and some other particular unit, which need be done only when data is read, written, or displayed.

SimpleUnit is a basic class that holds a conversion factor, a Dimension instance and other descriptive information for implementing a basic Unit. Many specific units are defined by extending this class; examples include Kelvin, Bar, Joule, etc.

A PrefixedUnit class takes a Unit instance and a Prefix, which can be used to construct units such as kilograms (combining Prefix.KILO with Gram.UNIT).

Derived units that are not already defined can be constructed using the CompoundUnit class.

The package `etomica.units.systems` defines constructs that can collect the units defined by conventional unit systems, such as SI, cgs, English, etc.